Friday, November 8, 2019

Disneyvember: An Unabashed Love Letter to Tangled


Disney has changed over the past few decades. To many fans, this company, once lauded for its quality and artistic innovation, has become a shadow of its former self.

There can still be a lot to love with modern original Disney films… and a lot that leave something to be desired.

We’re looking at the highs, lows, and mehs of modern Disney. Welcome to the final week of our Disney adventure, here in Disneyvember!

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Raised in isolation, a young girl grows up with no contact with the outside world beyond one animal friend and her over-protective mother. But when a dashing young man stumbles across her tower, Rapunzel’s life will never be the same.

Today I’m raving about Disney’s Tangled.

Disney 2010

It’s honestly shocking that apart from a few references, I’ve somehow managed to avoid talking about my favorite Disney film.

I adore Tangled. From the music to the characters to the cinematography to the sets, every piece feels warm and wonderful. You can feel the love and care put into the film.

Production

After the incredible success of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs in 1937, Disney frantically sifted through fairytales to turn into their next film. “Rapunzel” was one of the stories up for consideration, yet it remained locked in its tower until the mid-90’s, when Disney animating legend Glen Keane pitched a version of the tale. Unfortunately, Keane’s talents were needed for Tarzan, leaving “Rapunzel” to watch the world from her window until the early 2000’s.1

Even after production time finally came, Tangled underwent incredible changes, especially in its art style. When Keane was initially set to direct, he’d pursued a darker, Rembrandt-inspired art style, but creators felt this style weighed the film down. When health issues forced Keane to shift from directing to assisting animation, new directors Nathan Greno and Byron Howard shifted the art style to something lighter, airier—less Rembrandt and more Cinderella. This shift assisted tremendously with production, not only helping the story take shape, but also cementing the tone that makes Tangled so charming, so memorable, and such a perfect companion to the Disney classics.2

The Tone

Tangled does a superb job balancing darker elements with its clever charm, creating a world that feels airy and magical while also remaining grounded and relevant. This is a particularly remarkable feat considering the darker elements of the original story, which involved child kidnappings and people throwing themselves off Rapunzel’s tower.

Not that dark elements are foreign to Disney films. “[A] lot of Disney movies have a sinister core—Cruella de Vil wants to skin puppies for their fur!” director Greno pointed out. “The trick is to find ways to balance these elements with lighter, fun entertainment and create a visual style with the same balance.”3

The team behind Tangled achieved this balance by focusing on a single core idea, which art director Dave Goetz described as “appeal.”
We don’t want it to be grim, we don’t want it to be threatening or uncomfortable—even when there’s something really dramatic happening on screen, or something really horrible—it’s all been cocooned in this appealing package.4
But Tangled’s appeal isn’t the prepackaged, plasticy kind; Glen Keane insisted the story maintain an authentic, sincere tone. No glitz and gilding here.

For instance, there was a period during production where, much like Enchanted, the production team considered an “update” to the tale: it would feature two teens in a modern setting while poking fun at fairytales,5, 6 but Keane resisted this direction.

“I think when Glen first pitched Rapunzel, he really wanted it to be a sincere fairy tale; because Glen is a heartfelt, sincere guy who believes in things such as love and true emotion, and he really wanted to share that with the audience,” Greno recalled. “Glen, rightly so, said ‘I can’t do this kind of movie. This has to switch back, or else I can’t do it.’”7

And so it did.

I don’t believe Tangled would be near as good of a film without Keane’s commitment. Tangled shines sincerity from every facet, from its bright and inviting art design to its characters to its storytelling.

The Worldbuilding

In keeping with Keane’s vision of sincerity, the welcoming, appealing nature of Tangled had to also be, as visual effects supervisor Steve Goldberg put it, “believable and tangible.”8 And part of how Tangled accomplished this was through John Lasseter’s focus on worldbuilding. Co-director Byron Howard shared:
Even when you’re pitching new ideas, that’s the first thing [John Lasseter] says, “Think about the world,” because if you create a world, rather than just a character or a story, you can watch it, and it can play out and resolve within its own reality, so that it never feels false or that it’s “written.” You believe that you’re actually seeing this girl’s life play out, and feel that you want to go back and spend more time with these people. Be sure you have enough detail there so people feel like [the movie is] a full experience that they can just lose themselves in.9 
You can see this attention to detail in almost every art design decision in Tangled but nowhere more clearly than Rapunzel’s tower. While the tower is a prison, it’s also a home to Mother Gothel and Rapunzel; it needed to feel lived-in and homey while still being able to serve both functions… and as a literal canvas for Rapunzel’s wants, dreams, and lessons.10

“This girl is making her walls go away by painting on them,” Glen Keane explained.11

Glen and his daughter, Claire Keane, who worked as a visual development artist for the film, were both on the same page with this approach. “‘We didn’t want [the paintings] to just be decorative. This is all of her subconscious and all of her conscious desires… Rapunzel paints on the walls and she paints on her furniture and it’s all connected.” To create this kind of art, Claire found inspiration in her own daily activities, doodling as she worked.12

And the results are stunning. The art book is peppered with dozens of Claire’s paintings, some of which ended up on the inside of the tower in the actual film—all illustrating Rapunzel’s art style, her interests, and the things she’s studied over the years.13

Disney 2010

The worldbuilding in Tangled may be fantastic, but that’s not to say the characters aren’t important too. In fact, I’d argue Tangled’s tone and tale wouldn’t have worked at all were it not for its lovable cast.

The remainder of this post will contain spoilers for


Tangled



You have been warned.



The Characters

The Stabbington Brothers. Kinda cute, but double the trouble.
Everyone in Tangled—even the villainous Mother Gothel—has an element of likeability: that ever-present “appeal” that Goetz prized so dearly. Even the “Stabbington Brothers,” the goons who Gothel ropes into helping her kidnap Rapunzel back, have some element of likeability—though they’re only attractive outwardly and not inwardly. This contrasts with the thugs at the Snuggly Duckling tavern, who appear hideous but are goofy and nearly as endearing and quirky as Rapunzel herself.

 “Like all you lovely folks, I’ve got a dream!”

Disney 2010
And then there’s the love interest, Flynn Rider. I adore Flynn—and not just because he’s the most attractive Disney love interest to date! I’m a sucker for male characters whose life experiences have left them emotionally closed. Though Flynn isn’t as hardened as the love interest in Enchanted, Flynn’s experiences have left him just as hurt (and likely had a strong hand in his delightfully sarcastic sense of humor). Having grown up an orphan, Flynn seeks escape in the riches he thinks will make him happy. He lives his life without any regard for how his pursuits might affect those around him… until he meets Rapunzel and learns there’s so much more to life than seeking one’s own happiness. By the end of the film, Flynn proves he’s equal parts fun, clever, vulnerable, and sweet.

Disney 2010
But Rapunzel takes the cake when it comes to likeability. Much like Giselle from Enchanted, Rapunzel is a character I adore and relate to. I love her bubbly, perky, but thoughtful personality. I love how vibrant and loving she is, how open she is. She really is like a ray of sunshine, bringing light and warmth to every life she touches: she makes other people better than what they were before.

As Keane put it, “This is a girl who has to get out and bless the world.”14

Disney 2010

If Tangled’s appealing characters are the muscle that move the story and the commitment to sincerity is its backbone, then the respect for “Rapunzel’s” source material is what binds the two together.

Respect for What Came Before

Disney hasn’t always been careful about their source material, whether it’s failing to attribute sources such as with the Kimba/Lion King controversy or failing to pay homage to the original fairytales that inspired films such as Frozen or The Princess and the Frog. However, Tangled is refreshingly respectful to its source material.

As with almost every fairytale, “Rapunzel” has had many different versions, from a variety of French tales to the most well-known story by the Brothers Grimm.15 The variety among these versions makes it all the more impressive how many details from the original tales Disney preserved, down to ensuring Rapunzel possessed magic powers (in many versions of the tale, Rapunzel uses magic abilities to escape from her captor).16

Disney 2010
Of course, Tangled has the most in common with the Brothers Grimm version of the story. And while not every plot point made it in, all the major parts are there: a father-to-be brings his pregnant wife a particular plant out of concern for the wellbeing of their child. A villainous woman who considers the plant her own ends up in custody of the child, whom she imprisons in an impregnable tower while masquerading as the child’s true mother. The wicked woman uses Rapunzel’s uncut golden hair as her means of scaling the tower, calling the locks down with the classic, “Rapunzel, Rapunzel, let down your hair.” One day, a handsome young man comes across the tower and falls in love with Rapunzel. When the witch learns of it, she sets a trap for the young man. Someone ends up tumbling out of the tower, Rapunzel’s tears magically heal her beloved, and she and he live happily ever after.17

The creators carefully braided the plot points of this timeless tale with themes any contemporary viewer can relate to.

The Themes

Perhaps Glen Keane crystallized the theme best: it’s about “this idea of independence, a huge personal leap of ‘Me becoming Myself.’”18 A coming-of-age tale “with this young, vibrant, gifted person who has to get out and realize who she’s meant to be.”19

But this coming-of-age tale isn’t one just for children; as animation supervisor Clay Kaytis points out; this is a “universal” theme. “I think that Rapunzel’s character has a message that audiences will understand, either because they have the perspective that comes with growing up, or they’re wondering what they will become because they’re young.” Young or old, we all understand what it feels like to wonder… “[W]hen does my life begin?”20

Like many others of my generation, I know this question all too well. I feel stuck in the same place in life. No matter how comfortable my rut may feel, I know there’s something more out there for me, and it fills me with longing: the same feeling Rapunzel gets as she gazes out her window. We all know there’s something out in the wide world we were meant to do and be. And when anything keep us from experiencing that, we feel stuck… trapped.

So many of my generation have become trapped vocationally and economically. We feel like we can’t support ourselves, like we’re children all over again. It’s a situation many strive to get out of but don’t always have the best luck. And all the while, we can’t help but wonder: “When will my real life begin?”

The Conclusion

As I was working on this article, researching all the love and care that went into making my favorite Disney flick, I kept finding myself asking the same question: why do I love Tangled?

The answer was hard to pin down. Because the truth was, I love Tangled for all the reasons that I love so many of my favorite films, especially good Disney flicks: it’s the lovable characters, the gorgeous art design. The humor. The quirky and fun but sincere tone throughout the whole story.

Disney 2010

I didn’t want to just repeat the same things I say for every movie I’ve praised though. Not only does that make for a boring read, but to me, Tangled is something truly unique, special. I wanted to honor that by working hard to crystallize exactly why it felt so different, so extra-special, to me.

The fact is, I feel Tangled does everything right that Disney does best: its charming characters. Its memorable villains. Its excellent music. Its perfect tone and balance between humor and dark, grim reality, of life truths with joyous magic and a hopeful happy ending. The fact I resonate so much with Rapunzel or wish to spend a day with Flynn Rider is really just icing on the cake compared to all that.

John Lasseter said that “[f]rom the beginning, our directors… wanted this film to sit on the shelf next to Walt’s fairy tales…”21

The entire crew clearly poured their hearts into this film, wanting to honor the things they treasured that had come before. Disney’s legacy was certainly never far from producer Roy Conli’s mind: “Tangled will be the fiftieth Disney animated feature. That’s a huge inducement to do it right.”22 And I think the only way to “do it right” was to follow those sincere feelings—the genuine love for Disney that people like Glen Keane have. That people like directors Nathan Greno and Byron Howard have.

“Both of us have a deep love of classic Disney, including the parks and the animated films…” Greno and Howard explained.
When Disney retells a classic story, the Disney version becomes the one people remember forever. We didn’t take that lightly.

We knew the film should be a true fairy tale, one that drew inspiration from Disney’s rich artistic history… Tangled is a direct descendant of these films, inheriting some of their best qualities.23
Disney 2010

Tangled did indeed inherit some of Disney’s best qualities. And I think that’s ultimately why I adore this labor of love with unabashed delight.

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I hope you enjoyed these in-depth looks at Disney flicks the past few months! Next week, we’ll be going “Plus Ultra” with a series I haven’t discussed for a while. ;)

If you’re still hungering for more Disney, feel free to check out my first Disneytember post on Moana here!

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Notes and References:
  1. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books LLC, 2010), 11-12.
  2. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 11-12, 28-29, 35.
  3. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 29.
  4. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 45.
  5. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 12.
  6. Brooks Barnes, “The Line Between Homage and Parody,” NY Times, November 25, 2007, accessed October 31, 2019.
  7. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 12.
  8. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 45.
  9. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 44.
  10. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 47, 50.
  11. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 50.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 53.
  15. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 8, 9.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 150.
  19. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 58.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 6.
  22. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 29.
  23. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled, 7.
All photos property of their respective owners and used under US “Fair Use” laws. Unless otherwise specified, all photos are from Disney’s Official Tangled webpage.

Tangled and all related terms are the property of Walt Disney Studios. And I am not affiliated with them.

From Him, To Him

Friday, November 1, 2019

Disneyvember: An Unabashed Love Letter to Enchanted


Disney has changed over the past few decades. To many fans, this company, once lauded for its quality and artistic innovation, has become a shadow of its former self.

There can still be a lot to love with modern original Disney films… and a lot that leave something to be desired.

Due to unforeseen scheduling issues, we’re finishing up the highs, lows, and mehs of modern Disney over the next two weeks. Welcome to Disney…vember!

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On the eve of her fairytale wedding with the prince, a would-be princess finds herself thrown into a terrifying land full of brusque people “where there are no ‘happily ever afters.’”1 Will Giselle fail to find her happily ever after, or can she melt the heart of cynical single father Robert—before they both fall prey to the dangers of a wicked witch and a world that doesn’t seem to care about the magic of true love?

Today I’m raving about Disney’s Enchanted.

Disney 2007

In Enchanted, Giselle is transported to our world, where she finds her outlook being challenged constantly by the harsh realities of real life. However, through that struggle, she gains a newfound appreciation for love while maintaining her optimism and faith in the world.

Enchanted is a combination parody of and tribute to Disney films,2 but it wasn’t always this way. According to director Kevin Lima (A Goofy Movie, 102 Dalmations, and Disney’s 1999 Tarzan), Enchanted was originally written as “‘a racier R-rated movie’ inspired by the adult-risque comedy movies in the 1980s and 1990s.”3 This was the early 2000’s, after all: Jeffrey Katzenburg’s Shrek had just come out in 2001, topping the box office on its opening weekend.4, 5 Audiences clearly adored this edgy, modernized fairytale that poked fun at Disney tropes. Perhaps Disney needed to get with the times and produce something similar.

However, this edgy script didn’t sit right with Lima, as it missed the heart of the story he saw within.6

“With a movie like this, that’s all based on tone, I think the studio was just having difficulty with it… They just couldn’t grab a hold of the film and just couldn’t see it…” Lima said. “[S]o I also had a little bit of a different idea… I said ‘Let’s do it differently. Let’s… not take Disney down at its knees. Let’s do it in a way that feels like a love letter.’”7

After five years of relentless lobbying, Disney finally gave Lima the chance to make the film according to his vision.8 Beginning in 2005, Lima worked on alongside the original screenplay’s writer, Bill Kelly, “to combine the main plot of Enchanted with the idea of a ‘loving homage’ to Disney’s heritage.”9

So while the movie may tease Disney tropes, the creators insisted it’s all in good fun. “Shrek has a tendency to beat up on Disney. This is just the opposite. We lovingly embrace Disney,” Lima insisted,10 a point that Disney chairman Richard Cook—the man who ultimately gave Lima the green light on the film—also stood behind when he insisted to the New York Times that Enchanted was “not a parody and it’s not making fun of anything…”11

Indeed, the alleged “thousands” of Disney references Kevin Lima pointed out to blogger Peter Sciretta only seem to prove the extent to which the filmmakers adore Disney: Enchanted contains almost countless easter eggs, from hair shaped like Mickey Mouse’s ears to television caster’s names referencing Disney princess actresses to apartment numbers with the same area code as Disneyland California.12

If not for Lima’s loving appreciation for what had made Disney special in the first place, Enchanted never would have become the film it is… nor would it have meant so much to me.

Many critics spurn Disney films as outdated and unrealistic. Online articles are saturated with desire for Disney to move into something new, edgy, and scandalous—from intimate bloggers like Quint:
I like that there’s a nice grown up layer to [Enchanted] too, where there are a lot of more [crass] jokes and lot’s [sic] of innuendo and stuff… so it’s not like it’s a [sic] happy go lucky for happy go lucky’s sake…13
…to writers from The New York Times such as Brooks Barnes:
“Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs” and “Pinocchio” were landmark films, but next to the computer-generated behemoths of today, they start to look a little geriatric. (Relax. I said a little.)

Projects like “Enchanted” indicate that Mr. Iger’s team is trying to take a route down the middle: resisting adding modern touches but referencing them in fresh settings and winking at their old-fashioned charismas…

Well, nobody expected Disney to change completely overnight. As Cinderella’s Fairy Godmother cautioned, “Even miracles take a little time.”14
While I understand the authors’ arguments for improvement of media and for stories that speak to a modern audience, I don’t believe those require introducing the cynical or scandalous to Disney’s branding. And I think people who seek these qualities in Disney films largely miss the point of why Disney became so popular in the first place.

Much like Disney animator legend Glen Keane (the man responsible for Ariel, Beast, Tarzan, and Pocahontas’s animation),15 I think the charm of Disney films always has been and always will be in sincerity: that is, in storytellers who genuinely believe in what their stories are about.16

While Disney has proven lacking in professional sincerity due to questionable business practices, I don’t think anyone can argue that its classics were made by people with genuine love for what they created. And that’s not to mention the lessons about life we can learn through these stories; Walt Disney himself was a man who believed in the power of the fairytale to display the truths of life.

Creating satirical Disney films not only greatly misses these points but also ends up demeaning what makes those stories so timeless and cherished in the first place.

I’m glad Enchanted ended up being the product not of cynics who believed Disney’s brand of princesses and fairytales was old-hat but by people who cherished what had come before and wanted to do it justice. Enchanted truly is a love-letter to Disney, and I appreciate that—moreso now, I think, than ever before.

So, this is my love letter to Enchanted.

Perhaps it was because I was raised on Disney films or the fact I’d never had a boyfriend for so long, but I was (and still am) a fervent Romantic in every sense of the word. Like traditional Romanticism, I idolize innocence and treasure beauty and art. And it likely comes as no surprise that I’ve been searching for my “true love” since I was four years old. My world revolved around the desire for romance. And, in some small part, it still does.

And then I came across Enchanted, which released during the Disney princess/animation drought that had left my soul thirsting for more of the magic I’d grown up with. The movie came out in 2007, no less—the very year I entered adulthood, and with my first (and so far only) relationship still another year away.

There went Giselle, parading around as a Disney princess in “real life,” living out my life’s dream. She could get away with being silly and over-the-top and bubbly and perfectly innocent and adorable as only a Disney princess could17—and how I wished I could. And she so desperately yearned for true love, a man she could spend the rest of her life with.

Looking back, in so many ways, I was Giselle—as wide-eyed, innocent, and naive as she starts the film.

Like the moment a few years later, when my then-boyfriend confessed that until he’d met me, he hadn’t truly believed in love. It shocked me.

I’d always taken the concept for granted. Not only had I grown up in a loving family with two parents in a healthy marriage who were each other’s best friends, but I grew up drinking in stories about romance—about bonds of love that couldn’t be broken by wicked spells, insurmountable obstacles, or even death.

I’d had no idea some people had been through so much pain that it had challenged the idea that love, at least in the pure and innocent sense as Disney portrays it, could exist in the real world at all.

Much like how Giselle simply can’t fathom Robert’s cynical views on love and the world when she first meets him.

For my then-boyfriend and I both, when we found ourselves in the “real world,” we met people and circumstances that challenged our way of thinking, especially in each other.

I appreciate Enchanted’s innocence and its maturity—not a maturity of content, but of message. Neither Robert nor Giselle is completely wrong in their way of thinking. Robert is a pragmatist. Giselle is an optimist. Robert knows how painful and hard life can be, that it’s not always sugar and rainbows and that sometimes there are unhappy endings. Giselle believes in the power of love and that one should always be gentle and kind to others, even if they aren’t kind to you. The problem is, of course, that both of them take their beliefs to the extremes; they need each other to find balance.

My relationship helped grow me in much the same way Giselle’s relationship with Robert shaped her: maturing her while still enabling her to hold onto the truth she always knew all along.

And this was my truth: that there is nothing wrong with cherishing love, magic, song and dance, and all those things that make the Disney classics so classic. In fact, I’d argue that holding onto these things—especially in a day and age when many so-called intellects scoff at them—takes some amount of guts, strength—and, yes, maturity. As C. S. Lewis so aptly put it in his essay “On Three Ways of Writing for Children”:
Critics who treat adult as a term of approval, instead of as a merely descriptive term, cannot be adult themselves. To be concerned about being grown up, to admire the grown up because it is grown up, to blush at the suspicion of being childish; these things are the marks of childhood and adolescence… a mark of really arrested development: When I was ten I read fairy tales in secret and would have been ashamed if I had been found doing so. Now that I am fifty I read them openly. When I became a man I put away childish things, including the fear of childishness and the desire to be very grown up…18
And Lima seems to have much the same sort of mindset. “I’m not embarrassed by what most people consider juvenile entertainment,” he said,19 and this is what emboldened him to make a film that, while some consider parody, is still a clear love letter to Disney films and all the magic within them: the kind of beauty that we so often miss in our everyday hum-drum.

While more recent Disney films have certainly embraced a self-aware philosophy of poking fun at Disney tales while still telling a good story of their own (Think Moana’s insistence that Moana is not, in fact, a Disney princess stereotype; or Kristoff scolding Anna in Frozen for falling in love with a man at first sight), I think it’s people like Lima or Keane or C. S. Lewis who create the stories that mean the most to me. I can feel the sincerity they put into their work. It’s tangible. And it speaks worlds to people like me who, when going through something dark, need a sliver of light and hope that yes, love truly is real.

As an example, one scene from Enchanted that has always stood out to me is a scene set at a lovely ball, in which Giselle feels she must let go of Robert. Giselle knows now that she has fallen in love with him, but she cares too much about him to stand in the way of his relationship with his fiancĂ©e, Nancy. Despite the obvious love Robert and Giselle have for one another, they both feel they cannot pursue the relationship any longer, and they share a bittersweet dance to the tune of Jon McLaughlin’s “So Close.”

While that song held bittersweet significance upon my first viewing of the film, it gained so much more meaning once I lost my fairytale ending when my own Robert and I parted ways. It took years before I could bear to listen to “So Close” again, as it served as a constant reminder of a scene that had once just been part of a fairytale… but had come uncomfortably to life for me. It hurt because that scene, and the movie as a whole, was so real to me. And because Enchanted was so real, so tangible, so relatable, the film meant so very much to me.

But Enchanted didn’t only leave me with painful memories from a broken past; it brought me light and hope as well. For just as pain and hurt don’t break Giselle, neither did the pain I’ve undergone change who I am at my core. Giselle still hopes for and ultimately finds a happy ending. And if she can, then I too can conquer my dragons and find a “happily ever after” of my own, even if it doesn’t quite look like what I’d imagined, once upon a time.

In my book, any movie that tells that kind of story is a treasure to cherish indeed.

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Whew, that one got a bit heavy! Interested in some lighter reading about under-appreciated Disney films? Check out my thoughts on Meet the Robinsons here!

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Notes and References:
  1. Enchanted (film),” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, October 27, 2019, accessed October 31, 2019.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Quint, “Quint dreams about Disney princesses with ENCHANTED director Kevin Lima!!!” [sic], Ain’t It Cool News (blog), December 14, 2007, accessed October 31, 2019.
  5. Shrek,” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, October 23, 2019, accessed October 31, 2019.
  6. Susan Wloszczyna, “‘Enchanted’ Amy Adams falls under Disney spell” [sic], USA TODAY, May 2, 2007, accessed October 31, 2019.
  7. Quint, Ain’t It Cool News.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Enchanted (film),” Wikipedia.
  10. Susan Wloszczyna, USA TODAY.
  11. Brooks Barnes, “The Line Between Homage and Parody,” NY Times, November 25, 2007, accessed October 31, 2019.
  12. Peter Sciretta, “The Enchanted Visual Guide,” /Film (blog), March 14, 2008, accessed October 31, 2019.
  13. Quint, Ain’t It Cool News.
  14. Brooks Barnes, NY Times.
  15. Jeff Kurtti, The Art of Tangled (San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books LLC, 2010), 12.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Susan Wloszczyna, USA TODAY.
  18. C. S. Lewis, “On Three Ways of Writing for Children,” Of Other Worlds: Essays and Stories (New York, NY: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966), digitally provided courtesy of CatholicCulture.org, accessed October 31, 2019.
  19. Susan Wloszczyna, USA TODAY.
All photos property of their respective owners and used under US “Fair Use” laws. Unless otherwise specified, all photos from Disney’s Enchanted Official Website.

Enchanted and all related terms are the property of Walt Disney Studios. Shrek and all related terms property of DreamWorks Animation. And I am not affiliated with them.

From Him, To Him